News and events

Ghotic Line 1945. History, Memory and Territory

PROGRAMMA500xWe return to the footsteps of Italian History by remembering those who fought on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines battlefields.

We will do it together with the 122 descendants of the US 10th Mountain Division veterans, who after six years return to Italy to visit the places where their fathers or grandfathers fought between the winter and spring of 1945, flanked by the soldiers of the 1st Brazilian Infantry Division.
We present the program of events to be held between 6 and 11 June to which we have given a substantial contribution in terms of organization.
In particular, on the morning of June 6 the benches placed along the path that leads to the top of Monte Belvedere from via Calcinara will be inaugurated, offered and made available to visitors by the 10th Mountain Divison Descendant and the Tenth Mountain Division Foundation. In the afternoon, a new and original monument will be inaugurated at the entrance to the town of Querciola. Colonel Sérgio Alexandre de Oliveira, Military Attaché of the Brazilian Embassy in Italy, will be present at the visit to the FEB monument at the Guanella di Gaggio Montano on June 7. He will illustrate the history of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force in the battles between the winter and spring of 1945, alongside the soldiers of the 10th Mountain Division.
On June 9, on the day of the visit to Castel d'Aiano, a monument will be inaugurated in Santa Lucia at the base of Monte Pigna to celebrate the breakthrough of the German lines in the bloody offensive of April 14, 1945. On June 11, in the presence of the Consul General of the United States Consulate in Florence, Ms Ragini Gupta, Colonel Sérgio Alexandre de Oliveira, Military Attaché of the Brazilian Embassy in Italy, civil and military authorities, will be presented in Montese in national premiere, the TV miniseries MOUNTAINMEN. Gothic Line 1945. Filmed between March 2022 and January 2023 in the territories between Gaggio Montano, Montese and Castel d'Aiano, it will be screened in English-American during an event reserved for descendants of veterans of the 10th Mountain Division and authorities.

A year of new initiatives

In January of this year, the shooting of the Mountain Men miniseries, which began in March 2022, ended. A project by Luciano La Valle, produced by the Il Trebbo Association and the Museum, with the support of the 10th Mountain Division Foundation and 10th Mountain Division Descendants. Thanks also to the Unione dei Comuni dell'Appennino Bolognese and to the Municipalities of Lizzano in Belvedere, Montese, Castel d'Aiano, Gaggio Montano, San Marcello Pistoiese and Prunetta's Pro Loco.

Seen through the eyes of a group of soldiers from Company G of the 85th Regiment of the US 10th Mountain Division, the story begins with the Division’s arrival in Italy in January 1945 until the end of the war.
Based entirely on real events and documented through the memories of still living veterans, this miniseries narrates the important battles that led to the breaking of the German front in the central sector of the Gothic Line, in the upper Apennines between the provinces of Bologna, Modena, and Pistoia, signalling the end of the Second World War in Italy.

Italian Memories. 2nd Act

     In losing the election during the Grand Council of Facism (the agenda of Mr. Grandi on July 24, 1943) Mussolini was arrested by order of the King of Italy on July 25, 1943 and subsequently transported first to the island of Ponza in July 1943, then to the island of Maddalena between 7-27 of August 1943, and finally to Campo Imperatore on Mt. Gran Sasso. Freed by German paratroopers that were led by SS Captain Otto Skorzeny on September 12, 1943, and now at the mercy of Hitler’s will, he established the Italian Social Republic in the territories of northern Italy which started at the Gothic Line and included north Italy except for Venezia Giulia and Venezia Tridentina. This area was placed under the direct control of the Third Reich.


Villa Feltrinelli
  Since the beginning (first 600 days) of the Social republic, the “state capital” was located in Salo and was chosen for strategic reasons: that being, far from the front, there were no military targets in the area and the village (Salo) was connected to the main roads with Germany. The ministry buildings were scattered along the shore of Lake Garda and Mussolini lived in Villa Feltrinelli in Gargnano village, staying from October 10, 1943 to April 18, 1945.



    The villa was strongly defended from the air and ground: behind the villa a shelter had been constructed and on the roof  were anti-aircraft batteries; and on the ground were thirty SS soldiers under the command of Captain Kisnat guarding Mussolini. Villa Feltrinelli was home to all the family of Mussolini, his mistress, Claretta Petacci, lived in Villa Fiordaliso Gardone, a few kilometers away.


    Mussolini rarely left Villa Feltrinelli and only went to Villa Ursulines (today named Palazzo Feltrinelli), not far from the dock where he had his headquarters.


    After breaking the Green Line II (the second line of the Gothic Line defense) which took place beginning April 14, 1945 in the neighboring hills of Castel d’Aiano (Mt SPE), Rocca di Roffeno (Monte della Croce) and Torre Jussi, the 10th Mountain Division soldiers (first Alpine Division of the U.S. Army) advanced to the Po valley crossing the Po river April 23, 1945, and reached the outskirts of Villafranca April 25 and the shores of lake Garda on April 28, 1945.

10th's soldiers on Lake di Garda's shore
From the record of the 10th Mountain Division, 85th Regiment, an assault force consisting of Company K commanded by Captain Cooper, and a heavy machine gun platoon from Company M commanded by Lieutenant Bogin, crossed Lake Garda in 12 DUKW’s (amphibious vehicles) landing in Gargnano April 30, 1945. By 8:15 Villa Feltrinelli, Gargnano and Palazzo Feltrinelli were occupied without any resistance.



An object of Villa Feltrinelli

   In Villa Feltrinelli, hundreds of valuable objects were discovered including gifts to the Duce from leaders of the Axis nations,Hitler and Hirohito; a Stradivarius violin, swords, uniforms and medals. Between May 1 and May 7, the soldiers of Company K were placed to guard the Villa and took turns sleeping in the big four-post bed of Duce or adjacent room.


     It goes without saying that a common practice for all conquering armies is that the objects found in Villa Feltrinelli were considered “spoils of war” by the American soldiers who garrisoned the Villa during those seven days of May, 1943. Many of the valuable objects were mailed home to the U.S.

A wise Citation states, "Time is a gentleman."

Time has healed many wounds and memories of the war but such a tragic past cannot help but elicit a few remaining, unpleasant feelings that is part of Italian history.

We should follow in the example of 10th Mountain Division veterans and their descendants who, every three years return to Italy; to the foxholes and battlefields where they fought, renewing memories and friendships of so long ago, and warning the younger generation so that, “history does not repeat itself.”

Cruz and Val Rios

    In September, 2012,  Bob Yank of Company K, 85th Regiment, 10th Mountain Division passed away. He wished to give some of his “spoils of war” to Val Rios, Past President of 10th Mtn. Div. Descendants who was considered a dear friend and who honored the legacy of the 10th Mountain Division. Mr. Rios, while retaining ownership, wishes to have these “spoils of war” returned to Italy.



Beginning May, 2013, these objects from Villa Feltrinelli will be exhibited at a location recognized as an official museum of 10th Mtn. Div. Descendants, the museum at Iola, Italy.


Visit by Donald Dunn. 10th Mountain Division Veteran

On September, 27 2012,  another veteran of the 10th Mountain Division returned to Italy and had visited the museum in Iola Montese. DONALD DUNN has organized for itself, five sons and twenty-three descendants, the visit to the battlefields where he had fought between the February and April 1945 into the 86° Regiment, Company G.

     He was accompanied by two historians: Peter L. Hahn, professor and director of the history department at Ohio State University, and Peter R. Mansoor, associate professor.

The museum celebrated 20 years

Logo del tour Ancora Italia 2012

Logo dell'associazione culturale Il Trebbo

Logo del museo


Saturday 23 and Sunday 24, June


    Since 1963, every three years, the veterans of the U.S. 10th Mountain Division and their descendants return to Italy to explore the battlefields where they fought between February and May of 1945.
Also this year, Saturday, June 23, they welcomed into the village square by the authorities and citizens.

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 The activities of the museum relies on volunteers and donations.
Your donation can help us so the new and future generations can learn from their past.


        Link all'accreditamento dell'Associazione discendenti della 10a Divisione da Montagna